Health Promotion & Disease Prevention

Diseases of aging can be prevented through lifestyle modifications such as a healthy diet, smoking cessation, appropriate weight maintenance, increased physical activity and stress management. There are certain ways to decrease the risk of certain diseases such as heart disease, cancer and stroke, the leading causes of death in the elderly.

Health Promotion activities are those activities in which an individual can proactively engage to improve his or her health. The prevention activities may be classified as primary prevention, secondary prevention and tertiary prevention.

Primary prevention activities are those designed to completely prevent a disease from occurring such as immunization against pneumonia or influenza.

Secondary preventive efforts are directed toward early detection and management of a disease. For example, colonoscopy to detect small cancerous polyps. Tertiary prevention efforts are used to manage clinical diseases to prevent them from progressing or to avoid complications of the disease.

For example, beta-blockers are used to help remodel the heart in congestive heart failure.

Health Screening:

 Health Screening is a form of secondary prevention. For example screening test for disease like diabetes, which occurs frequently, is beneficial for the early detection of the disease. The screening tests should be relatively non-invasive and acceptable to the patients, cost-effective and available, and highly sensitive and specific. (For screening test it is suggested that you should take advice from the experts.).

Health Promotion Efforts:

A major focus of Health Promotion efforts for the elderly is to minimise the loss of independence associated with illness and functional decline. Multiple chronic illnesses are common in the elderly and cure is often an unrealistic and inappropriate goal. These chronic illnesses can lead to disability and dependency. Maintaining independence in activities of daily living ( ADLs) is an important goal for health-promoting activities.

The family caregivers need to focus on the following areas to promote health and prevent disability in the elderly members of the family.

      1. Physical activity,
      2. Nutrition,
      3. Quit smoking( tobacco use),
      4. Safety (prevention from Falls, and home safety and monitoring balance),
      5. Immunization (Annual flu vaccine, Pneumococcal vaccine)
      6. Depression
      7. Dementia


What can a caregiver do to encourage the elderly family member who is suffering from chronic diseases to adopt health-promoting behaviours and manage their chronic illness?

Five key elements of self-management programmes are:

    1. Problem-solving
    2. Decision making
    3. Resource utilization
    4. Forming a healthcare professional/ client partnership
    5. Taking action.

In the problem-solving phase, the elderly person may identify several barriers to initiating an exercise programme and then list strategies for overcoming each barrier, to arrive at a workable strategy. Decision-making helps the elderly with the information needed to make the decisions they need to be on daily basis.

Note: Indian Gerontological Association, provides a Chronic Disease Self- management programme (CDS MP). The course goal is to teach elderly patients to improve symptoms management, maintain functional ability, and adhere to their medication discipline.

The Self –management course is most effective in smoking cessation. Immunization, physical activity, weight control, arthritis, and diabetes.

(To be continued—-)

Related: jack and johnnette williams, madden 21 sleeper players, connie macdonald obituary, barbara berry cochran, king of the hill laotian translation, how to open lg slim portable dvd writer, iveco daily dashboard warning lights explained, moss creek goldendoodles complaints, busse woods parking map, nickname for someone with no legs, is oklahoma giving extra food stamps this month, judge quinones brooklyn, seattle select basketball, voice of fluttershy, gates four golf tournament,Related: transatlantic accent monologue, british airways mission statement 2021, signs of an unsupportive husband, zoom visits for inmates wisconsin, city of detroit police impound, jesse sullivan military service, pgce cambridge university, rosemary pitman cause of death, house for sale in santa elena, cayo, men’s capsule wardrobe 2022, pickerings pasture to hale lighthouse, when was st abigail canonized, glendale ca chicken laws, network rail george house glasgow, ionic equation for neutralisation bbc bitesize,Related: katitikan ng pulong halimbawa, null symbol copy paste, list of level 1 trauma centers in northern california, petrolisthes elongatus adaptations, is kilroy was here racist, the man from ironbark poetic techniques, ar reihana husband, , custom acrylic paperweights, la vitamina e sirve para eliminar quistes en los senos, is jay caufield married, azeos core keeper wiki, geico inspection locations, maitre choux calories, dwight waldo the administrative state summary,Related: city of south saint paul jobs, samantha willis documentarian, dirty chocolate jokes, property management biddeford maine, chattahoochee valley community college basketball roster, orrin and orson west theories, how much prune juice should i drink, st lucie county building department contractor registration, jesse howard singer, rostyslav pavlichenko, what does ben seewald do for a living, male skincare influencers australia, kent grammar schools out of catchment, cecilia de la hoya birthplace, private tennis lessons sacramento,Related: daniel ashville louisy wife, san antonio vital records, pensacola blue wahoos roster, rush medical college class of 2024, did michael jackson invent the moonwalk, newborn photography course kent, 85 bus timetable holsworthy to barnstaple, spanish royal family daughters, stephen lydiate salford, nba defensive player of the year list 2022, lal kitab remedies for weak moon, rensselaer county court upcoming cases, padres city connect jersey 2022, high priestess and empress tarot combination, do contestants on guy’s grocery games get paid,Related: is zorin mybalzich a real person, where is it raining right now in the world, arkansas real estate exam quizlet, how to stop bitcoin spam emails, the webb family supernanny where are they now, on the present or approaching evening or night, is patty hearst still alive, seth macfarlane eye injury, does due diligence period include weekends in georgia, sheffield city centre parking, how to enable touchpad on hp laptop shortcut key, und women’s hockey roster, kroger payroll department, fallout new vegas preset characters, forest glen camp accident,Related: native american last names, how many murders in manchester 2020, names that mean pestilence, how many clients does a small cpa firm have, who played rocky’s son in rocky balboa, mobile homes for rent no credit check near illinois, danville, va obituaries today, wilshire country club membership cost, sparta, nc fairgrounds events, overnight oats pre workout bodybuilding, why did wells die so early, soft gamine haircut, san angelo newspaper obituaries, maya and mary nationality, bob prince bridgewater wife,


(Miss Sadie Delany, aged 106, and her sister, Dr. Bessie Delany, deceased at 104, had definite rules for living a long and healthy life. Both exercised every single day, whether they felt like it or not. Both always downed chopped garlic and cod liver oil at breakfast and ate at least seven vegetables at lunchtime. The sisters also made a habit of living as stress-free a life as possible. They steadfastly refused to install a telephone, preferring more personal methods of communication. Other strategies for the sisters’ serenity were published in the Delany Sisters’ Book of Everyday Wisdom in 1994).

Bessie and Sadie, the Delany sisters are famous for remaining physically and mentally active into their second century. After they became 101 and 103 years of age respectively, the book on their experiences was a best-seller book, the television shows were very popular. I am quoting some of their pieces of advice, comments and wisdom:

“No matter how old you get, you think of yourself as young. In our dreams, we are always young.”

Sadie Delany

“Most folks think getting older means giving up, not trying anything new. Well, we don’t agree with that. As long as you can see each day as a chance for something new to happen, something you never experienced before, you will stay young—–even after a century of living, we haven’t tried everything. We‘ve only just started.”

Sadie Delany



Ageing and accompanying health factors often make later part of life a very difficult period of life. Self-care and health promotion are important in maintaining independence in old age. Self-care is the ability to meet one’s needs. It is suggested that maintaining of low risk of disease and disease-related disability, high mental and physical functions and active engagement of life are most essential in the later period of life.

Indeed, the higher functional ability is not necessary for a higher quality of life. The elderly who have chronic disabilities find ways to maximize the quality of life through other means including spirituality and social engagements. Altruism and volunteering in various capacities enhance life satisfaction.


Positive psychologist Seligman has discussed many features of positive psychology. Positive aging should be understood in the light of the important premise of positive psychology, the premise is – human beings possess strengths and resources that can be used as buffers against challenges or realities of life. The specific strengths according to Seligman are: “courage, future mindedness, optimism, interpersonal skill, faith, work ethic, hope, honesty, perseverance and capacity for flow and insight—“.

These individual traits of personality, values, attitudes and beliefs are the sources of coping with the aging process. The resources are psychological or intrinsic and external resources are medical care, housing, occupation, social security, etc. With a positive attitude, the elderly can modify their own aging experience. To cultivate a positive attitude aged person should first control over the enemies. The enemies are Rigidity, negativity, worry, self-absorption, regret.

Maintain your Heath and Independence

Significant shifts are evident in both population ageing and the prevalence of non-communicable lifestyle diseases. The impact of such changes on society is becoming dramatic. The growing obesity problems, declining levels of physical activity and increased prevalence of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes are just of few health issues that are requiring immediate attention from the Government and other agencies who are advocating the issues of the elderly. Older adults want to remain healthy and independent at home and society wants to minimize the health care and economic costs associated with an increasingly ageing population.

The most important health problem is the need for a reduction in the morbidity of ageing populations. Prevention is always better than cure. Curative approaches to problems of frail elderly are not likely to have robust effects. Prevention of morbidity associated with ageing represents the central issue for future health, and knowledge of which approaches are best and how they may best be implemented is a prerequisite for successful health policies.

Keeping in view this fact, health promotion and disease prevention activities should be given priority for older adults, their families and the health care system. Several studies have indicated that healthy eating, physical activity, mental stimulation, maintaining a safe environment, social support and regular health care are important in maintaining health and independence.