Ageing and accompanying health factors often make later part of life a very difficult period of life. Self-care and health promotion are important in maintaining independence in old age. Self-care is the ability to meet one’s needs. It is suggested that maintaining of low risk of disease and disease-related disability, high mental and physical functions and active engagement of life are most essential in the later period of life.
Indeed, the higher functional ability is not necessary for a higher quality of life. The elderly who have chronic disabilities find ways to maximize the quality of life through other means including spirituality and social engagements. Altruism and volunteering in various capacities enhance life satisfaction.